712 - Bridge Rehabilitation, Concrete

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Bridge Rehabilitation - Concrete


Weather Limitations

See Section 712 of the Standard Specifications for Construction for Cold and Hot Weather Limitations.




Bridge Deck Overlays

Existing deck elevations will be taken to establish grades for the overlay course.

Preparation of new decks for the overlay involves abrasive or water blasting to remove any laitence or foreign substance and to promote a good bond to the concrete. Placing and curing of the overlay is similar to that described below for existing decks.

Scarifying Existing Deck

After closing the deck to traffic, all HMA overlays and patches will be removed and cleaned up. The entire deck surface will be scarified to a depth of 1/4 inch (7 mm) or as specified on the plans. The scarification depth should be controlled to prevent deep cutting which will result in an overrun of the overlay material. Areas that cannot be machine scarified are to be hand chipped to remove the required scarification depth. Again, the entire deck surface will be cleaned up.

Areas that are cracked, undercut, or suspicious looking should be checked. Hand chipping hammers may be used for the second pass removal. The deck will be abrasive or water blasted.

Equipment for Hydro-Demolishing

Equipment Description - see Section 712 of the Standard Specifications for Construction.

Placing Latex Modified Concrete (LMC)

The deck must be thoroughly wetted one hour before the pour. All freestanding water should be blown off the deck with oil-free compressed air. Water blasting may be substituted at this time. The deck will be kept damp during the pour.

After a small amount of LMC has been discharged, the material is broomed into the deck leaving a creamy surface. Excess stone from the LMC that has the mortar used up will be removed.

Placement of the overlay should follow the brooming so it does not dry out. A bridge finishing machine will be used. The overlay will be consolidated by the pan vibrator and/or hand-held vibrators. Pay particular attention to consolidation along bulkheads and deep removal areas. After the machine has moved ahead, the surface will be tined and covered with a layer of damp burlap, and then plastic sheeting.

The overlay will be wet cured for 48 hours, then air cured for an additional 48 hours. High-early LMC will be wet cured for 24 hours.

The mobile concrete units will be calibrated every three months by C&T personnel. A copy of the calibration will be carried by each truck. File copies are available from the C&T Bridge Construction Section.

Mixing, Placing, Finishing, and Curing SFMC Concrete Overlays

See Section 712 of the Standard Specifications for Construction for trial batches.

Proportioning and mixing the SFMC overlay shall be by either a ready mixed or central mixed batch plant meeting the requirements of subsection PCC for Structures.pdf 701.03. Trucks delivering SFMC to the project site must be fully discharged within one hour of charging at the plant.

One hour prior to placing the SFMC overlay, the prepared deck will be wetted with a uniform spray application of water. Water collecting in depressions will be blown out with clean, oil-free compressed air.

SFMC mixture placed in localized areas deeper than 3 inches (75 mm) is to be hand vibrated in front of the finishing machine by drawing a probe vibrator horizontally through the concrete parallel to the transverse reinforcing bars at intervals not greater than 18 inches (450 mm) on center. Should the operator have trouble locating the deep removal areas, the Contractor will devise a system for use such as a deck diagram or markings on the barriers. The Contractor will coordinate this system with the Engineer.

A continuous fog spray of water will be applied to the screeded and finished concrete to prevent net evaporation from the surface of the unhardened concrete. Fogging equipment will be capable of placing a fine mist over the concrete surface without ponding water. Fogging will continue behind the final floating operation until the wet cure system is in place and activated. Fogging shall not be used to apply water to the surface of the concrete to facilitate finishing.

The silica fume concrete overlay will be wet cured for 7 days according to Section 712 of the Standard Specifications for Construction.

Mixing, Placing, Finishing, and Curing Concrete Patches

See Section 712 of the Standard Specifications for Construction.

Substructure Repair

Areas to be patched or filled will be saw cut to a minimum edge depth of 1/2 inch (15 mm), and the concrete unsound or sound, will be removed to a minimum depth of 3 inches (75 mm). If resteel is exposed, chip 3/4 inch (20 mm) beneath the bar. Make sure the area is outlined with a saw cut to insure neat lines and no spall areas. After the concrete removal, blast clean the area to be patched. Forms must be cleaned, have a bond breaker applied, be tight and form neat lines. Place and cure patching material according to specifications.


Measuring and Calibration

Prior to casting any overlay mixture, the finishing machine will be passed over the deck to check for plan thickness and the depths recorded on Form 1131 - Bridge Decks - Concrete Depth Measurements (see Figure 706-1).

Concrete Bridge Deck Overlay can be either a Silica Fume Modified Concrete or a Latex Modified Concrete.

Silica Fume Modified Concrete is required for Deep Bridge Deck Overlay Concrete.

Calibrating a Hydrodemolisher

Find an area of good concrete approximately 30 square feet (3 m2).


Hydrodemolish approximately 10 square feet (1 m2).


Using a straightedge, set it across the area, measure to the mortar line, and adjust depth as necessary.


After the proper depth is obtained, the hydrodemolisher is ready for production cutting.


After the machine has moved approximately 20 linear feet (6 m), recheck the cut depth and make any necessary adjustments.


Now production can continue with spot checking the depth.


Record the settings (water pressure, cutting head speed, forward advancement) on the IDR for future reference.


During the first pass, the material will be cleaned up.


No runoff water will leave the deck until it has been filtered clean.


Allow the deck to air dry for one day before sounding the concrete for a second pass.


Areas of exposed resteel and deep removal should be sounded for good concrete. Where resteel is debonded, the concrete will be chipped 3/4 inch (20mm) below the steel.


Runoff water, filtered or unfiltered, shall not be allowed to enter storm sewers, bridge drainage downspouts or bridge approach downspouts, nor be discharged into surface water floodplains or wetlands.

Testing of Latex Modified Concrete (LMC)

Slump, air and yield tests will be run on all trucks the first time around. Random testing will be allowed after this. The air test will be run immediately; the slump test after four to five minutes has elapsed. Yield tests will be adjusted by opening or closing the aggregate bins accordingly. New settings will be recorded for further use. No additives can be added for high or low air. If either of these conditions exists, a reblending of the latex is necessary. Out of specification material will be rejected.

Testing of Silca Fume Concrete

Slump and air tests will be taken on the mixture throughout the pour.